Monday, October 8, 2018

ប្រវត្តិកងកំលាំងថែរក្សាសន្តិភាព អង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ

កងកំលាំងនេះ ចាប់ផ្តើមបេសកម្មដំបូងក្នុងឆ្នាំ ១៩៤៨។ ចំនួនបេសកកម្មប្រែប្រួលតាមឆ្នាំ កងកំលាំងដែលប្រទេសនានាបញ្ជូនទៅ ក៍មានការប្រែប្រួលតាម បេសកកម្មដែរ ឆ្នាំ ២០១៨ មាន ១៤ បេសកកម្ម ។
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice
រចនាសម្ព័ន្ធនៃអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ

បេសកកម្មថែរក្សាសន្តិភាពអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ ស្ថិតក្រោមការដឹកនាំបញ្ជានៃ នាយកដ្ឋានប្រតិបត្តិការថែរក្សាសន្តិភាព គឺដូចជា " ផ្នែកសំខាន់បំផុត និង សកម្មបំផុត របស់អង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ ក្នុងការជួយដល់ប្រទេសដែលជូបប្រទៈនូវ ជំលោះ ឲ្យឈានដល់ការ កសាងសន្តិភាពយូរអង្វែង។ បេសកកម្មនេះ ខុសពី ការស្ថាបនាសន្តិភាពក្រោយជំលោះ ការកសាងសន្តិភាព និងការពង្រឹងសន្តិភាព ជាការពិតណាស់ អង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ ទទូលស្គាល់ថា រាល់បេសកកម្មទាំងអស់ សុទ្ធតែ​ជួយពង្រឹងបេសសកម្មគ្នាទៅវិញទៅមក " និង ទទួលស្គាល់ថា ជាញឹកញាប់ គឺពិតជាមានកិច្ចការជាន់គ្នាច្រើន។
បរិបទសកម្មភាពអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិលើផ្នែក សន្តិភាព និង សន្តិសុខ (ធៀប នៅកម្ពុជា)


The United Nations Charter gives the United Nations Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations through Chapter VII authorizations.

ធម្មនុញ្ញអង្កការសហប្រជាជាតិសម្រេចឲ្យក្រុមប្រឹក្សាសន្តិសុខអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិនូវអំណាច និងការទទួលខុសត្រូវក្នុងចំណាត់ការរួមដើម្បីរក្សានូវសន្តិភាព និង សន្តិសុខ សកលលោក។ ស្ថិតក្នុងន័យនេះ សហគមន៍អន្តរជាតិជាទូទៅសម្លឹងមើលទៅក្រុមប្រឹក្សាសន្តិសុខដើើម្បី ដឹកនាំបញ្ជាប្រតិបត្តិការថែរក្សាសន្តិភាព តាមរយៈការអនុញ្ញាតិក្នុងជំពូក ៤។

បទពិសោធន៍ នៅកម្ពុជាឆ្លងពី SNC- UNTAC-និង កម្ពុជា


Most of these operations are established and implemented by the United Nations itself, with troops serving under UN operational control. In these cases, peacekeepers remain members of their respective armed forces, and do not constitute an independent "UN army," as the UN does not have such a force. In cases where direct UN involvement is not considered appropriate or feasible, the Council authorizes regional organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO),​ the Economic Community of West African States, or coalitions of willing countries to undertake peacekeeping or peace-enforcement tasks.

ប្រតិបត្តិការភាគច្រើនត្រូវបានរៀបចំ និង ប្រតិបត្តិដោយអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិខ្លួនឯង ដែលមានកងទ័ពបម្រើការក្រោមការដឹកនាំបញ្ជាត្រួតពិនិត្យរបស់ផ្នែក ប្រតិបត្តិការអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ។ ក្នុងករណីនេះ​ កងទ័ពថែរក្សាសន្តិភាពស្ថិតនៅក្រោមបញ្ជារបស់ប្រទេសសាម៉ី និងមិនស្ថិតក្រោមស្ថាបនឯករាជ្យ " កងទ័ពអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ" ដោយសារអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិគ្មានកំលាំងទ័ព បែបនេះឡើយ។ ក្នុងករណីចាំបាច់ត្រូវមាន អង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិចូលពាក់ព័ន្ធ ដែលអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិនេះគ្មានលទ្ធភាព ឬ មិនសមស្រប ក្រុមប្រឹក្សាសន្តិសុខ អនុញ្ញាតិឲ្យអង្គភាពទ័ពក្នុងតំបន់ ចូលធ្វើប្រតិបត្តិការដូចជា អង្គការសន្ធិសញ្ញាអាតាល្លង់តិចខាងជើង (ណាតូ) សហគមន៍សេដ្ឋកិច្ចនៃរដ្ឋអាហ្រិកខាងកើត ឬ សម្ព័ន្ធនៃប្រទេសដែលមាន ឆន្ទៈ ចូលបំពេញភារកិច្ចរក្សាសន្តិភាព ឬ  កិច្ចការពង្រឹងសន្តិភាព។

Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. Accordingly, UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel.
ប្រវត្តិចំនួនកងកំលាំងមួកខៀវកម្ពូជាបញ្ជូនចេញសម្រាប់បេសកកម្មថែរក្សាសន្តិភាពអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ ឆ្នាំ ២០០៥- ២០១៨


បទពិសោធន៍ការពង្រាយកំលាំង UNTAC នៅកម្ពុជាឆ្នាំ ១៩៩២


បុគ្គលិកថែរក្សាសន្តិភាពត្រួតពិនិត្យ និង សង្កេតមើលដំណើរការសន្តិភាពក្នុងតំបន់ក្រោយកើតមានជម្លោះ និងជួយអតីតអ្នកប្រយុទ្ធក្នងការអនុវត្តន៍នូវកិច្ចព្រមព្រៀងសន្តិភាពដែលពួកគេបានចុះហត្ថលេខា។ ជំនួយបែបខាងលើនេះ អាចមានច្រើនទម្រង់ រួមមានទាំងវិធាននានាដើម្បីកសាងទំនុកចិត្តគ្នា ការចែករំលែកអំណាចគ្នា ការជួយគាំទ្រដល់ការបោះឆ្នោត ការពង្រឹតផ្នែកច្បាប់ សេដ្ឋកិច្ច និង ការអភិវឌ្ឈន៍សង្គម។ ក្នុងន័យនេះ បុគ្គលិកសង្កេតការអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ (ជាទូទៅ សំដៅបុគ្គលិកមួកកន្តឹបខៀវ ឬ មួកកាស់ខៀវ ដោយសារ ពួកគេពាក់មួកមានពណ៍ខៀវ) អាចរួមបញ្ចូលទាំង ទាហាន នគរបាល និង បុុគ្គលិកស៊ីវិល។
  1. UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization May 1948 Present
  2. UNMOGIP United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan January 1949 Present
  3. United Nations Emergency Force I (UNEF I) Nov 1956 - Jun 1967
  4. UNEF I First United Nations Emergency Force November 1956 June 1967
  5. United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) Jun 1958 - Dec 1958
  6. UNOGIL United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon June 1958 December 1958
  7. United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) Jul 1960 - Jun 1964
  8. ONUC United Nations Operation in the Congo July 1960 June 1964
  9. United Nations Security Force in West New Guinea (UNSF) Oct 1962 - Apr 1963
  10. UNSF United Nations Security Force in West New Guinea October 1962 April 1963
  11. United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM) Jun 1963 - Sep 1964
  12. UNYOM United Nations Yemen Observation Mission July 1963 September 1964
  13. UNFICYP United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus March 1964 Present
  14. Mission of the Representative of the Secretary - General in the Dominican Republic (DOMREP) May 1965 - Oct 1966
  15. United Nations India - Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM) Sep 1965 - Mar 1966
  16. DOMREP Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic May 1965 October 1966
  17. UNIPOM United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission September 1965 March 1966
  18. United Nations Emergency Force II (UNEF II) Oct 1973 - Jul 1979
  19. UNEF II Second United Nations Emergency Force October 1973 July 1979
  20. UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force June 1974 Present
  21. UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon March 1978 Present
  22. United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) May 1988 - Mar 1990
  23. UNGOMAP United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan May 1988 March 1990
  24. United Nations Iran - Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) Aug 1988 - Feb 1991
  25. UNIIMOG United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group August 1988 February 1991
  26. United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) Apr 1989 - Mar 1990
  27. UNTAG United Nations Transition Assistance Group April 1989 March 1990
  28. United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I) Dec 1989 - Jun 1991
  29. UNAVEM I United Nations Angola Verification Mission I January 1989 June 1991
  30. United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA) Nov 1989 - Jan 1992
  31. ONUCA United Nations Observer Group in Central America November 1989 January 1992
  32. United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) Oct 1991 - Mar 1992
  33. UNAMIC United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia October 1991 March 1992
  34. United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II) May 1991 - Feb 1995
  35. United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) May 1991 - Apr 1995
  36. UNAVEM II United Nations Angola Verification Mission II June 1991 February 1995
  37. ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador July 1991 April 1995
  38. United Nations Iraq - Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) Apr 1991 - Oct 2003
  39. UNIKOM United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission April 1991 October 2003
  40. MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara April 1991 Present
  41. United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) Feb 1992 - Sep 1993
  42. UNTAC United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia March 1992 September 1993
  43. UNOSOM I United Nations Operation in Somalia I April 1992 March 1993
  44. United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) Dec 1992 - Dec 1994
  45. ONUMOZ United Nations Operation in Mozambique December 1992 December 1994
  46. United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) Apr 1992 - Mar 1993
  47. United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) Feb 1992 - Mar 1995
  48. UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Force February 1992 March 1995
  49. United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) Sep 1993 - Sep 1997
  50. United Nations Observer Mission Uganda - Rwanda (UNOMUR) Jun 1993 - Sep 1994
  51. UNOMUR United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda June 1993 September 1994
  52. United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) Mar 1993 - Mar 1995
  53. UNOSOM II United Nations Operation in Somalia II March 1993 March 1995
  54. United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) Oct 1993 - Mar 1996
  55. United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) Sep 1993 - Jun 1996
  56. UNMIH United Nations Mission in Haiti September 1993 June 1996
  57. UNAMIR United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda October 1993 March 1996
  58. UNOMIL United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia September 1993 September 1997
  59. United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) Aug 1993 - Jun 2009
  60. UNOMIG United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia August 1993 June 2009
  61. United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG) May 1994 - Jun 1994
  62. UNASOG United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group May 1994 June 1994
  63. United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) Dec 1994 - May 2000
  64. UNMOT United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan December 1994 May 2000
  65. United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO) Mar 1995 - Jan 1996
  66. UNCRO United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia May 1995 January 199
  67. United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III) Feb 1995 - Jun 1997
  68. UNAVEM III United Nations Angola Verification Mission III February 1995 June 1997
  69. United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP) Mar 1995 - Feb 1999
  70. UNPREDEP United Nations Preventive Deployment Force March 1995 February 1999
  71. United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) Dec 1995 - Dec 2002
  72. United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) Oct 1999 - Dec 2005
  73. UNMIBH United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina December 1995 December 2002
  74. United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) Jun 1996 - Jul 1997
  75. UNSMIH United Nations Support Mission in Haiti July 1996 July 1997
  76. United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) Jan 1996 - Jan 1998
  77. UNTAES United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia,Baranja and Western Sirmium January 1996 January 1998
  78. United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) Jan 1996 - Dec 2002
  79. UNMOP United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka January 1996 December 2002
  80. United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH) Jul 1997 - Nov 1997
  81. United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) Jan 1997 - May 1997
  82. MINUGUA United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala January 1997 May 1997
  83. UNTMIH United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti August 1997 December 1997
  84. United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) Jun 1997 - Feb 1999
  85. MONUA United Nations Observer Mission in Angola June 1997 February 1999
  86. United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH) Nov 1997 - Mar 2000
  87. MIPONUH United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti December 1997 March 2000
  88. United Nations Civilian Police Support Group (UNCPSG) Jan 1998 - Oct 1998
  89. UNCPSG UN Civilian Police Support Group January 1998 October 1998
  90. United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) Jul 1998 - Oct 1999
  91. UNOMSIL United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone July 1998 October 1999
  92. United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) Mar 1998 - Feb 2000
  93. MINURCA United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic April 1998 February 200
  94. United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) Oct 1999 - May 2002
  95. UNTAET United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor October 1999 May 2002
  96. UNAMSIL United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone October 1999 December 2005
  97. United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) Nov 1999 - Jun 2010
  98. MONUC United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo November 1999 June 2010
  99. UNMIK United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo June 1999 Present
  100. United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) Jul 2000 - Jul 2008
  101. UNMEE United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea July 2000 July 2008
  102. United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) May 2002 - May 2005
  103. UNMISET United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor May 2002 May 2005
  104. United Nations Mission in Côte d'Ivoire (MINUCI) May 2003 - Apr 2004
  105. MINUCI United Nations Mission in Côte d’Ivoire May 2003 April 2004
  106. United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) Sep 2003 - Mar 2018
  107. UNMIL United Nations Mission in Liberia September 2003 March 2018
  108. United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB) May 2004 - Dec 2006
  109. ONUB United Nations Operation in Burundi June 2004 December 2006
  110. United Nations Operations in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) Apr 2004 - Jun 2017
  111. United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) Jun 2004 - Oct 2017
  112. UNOCI United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire April 2004 May 2017
  113. MINUSTAH United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti June 2004 October 2017
  114. United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) Mar 2005 - Jul 2011
  115. UNMIS United Nations Mission in the Sudan March 2005 July 2011
  116. United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor - Leste (UNMIT) Aug 2006 - Dec 2012
  117. UNMIT United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste
  118. United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) Sep 2007 - Dec 2010
  119. MINURCAT United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad September 2007 December 2010
  120. UNAMID African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur July 2007 Present
  121. MONUSCO United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo July 2010  Present
  122. UNISFA United Nations Organization Interim Security Force for Abyei June 2011 Present
  123. UNMISS United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan July 2011 Present
  124. United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) Apr 2012 - Aug 2012
  125. UNSMIS United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria April 2012 August 2012
  126. MINUSMA United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali April 2013 Present
  127. MINUSCA United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic April 2014 Present
  128. MINUJUSTH United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti October 2017 Present